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Tantras . Kaula 

Kaula and other 
Upani shads 




















Calcutta London 

AgamAnusandhAna SAMITI. LUZAC k CO. 



, 1 





Rs. A. 

Vol. I. TANTRABHIDHANA with Vijanighantu 
and Mudrd-Nighantu. — A Tantrik Dictionary, Edited 
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the six centres of the body by Purnananda Svami. 
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by Girisha Chandra Vedantatirtha. With an Intro- 
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dhist Tantra Edited by Kazi Dausamdup with a 
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Translated by and notes of Arthur Avalon. 3 o 

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from the Sanskrit, with Introduction and Commentary. 
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Vols. I and II. 

PANA). A translation of Vol. II Tantrik Texts and 
Introduction by Arthur Avalon with coloured plates 
of the Chakras 

"WAVE OF BLISS" (Anandalahari) (07// 0//*™/). 

CREATION according to Tantra. 1 o 

•'GREATNESS OF SHIVA' (Mahimnastava) {out of print). 

SHAKTI & SHAKTA, 2nd Ed. Studies in Kaula doctrine 
and ritual. 7 8 

GARLAND OF LETTERS. Studies in the Mantra ShAstra 


HYMNS TO THE GODDESS (from the Tantra and 
the Stotra of Shangkaracharyya). 


The Upanishads published in this volume belong, with the 
exception of the Aruna and the Bahvricha, to the Saubhagya 
Kanda of the Atharva Veda. Some reader may ask why they 
are published in this series of Tantrik Texts seeing that they 
are not Tantras ; nor can they be called (as some might do) 
Tantrik Upanishads for there does not exist any such thing. 
To the followers of the Agama Upanishad is Upanishad and of 
authority as Shruti and not a Tantrik or otherwise qualified 
Upanishad. In fact the adjective Tantrik is largely a western 
term. In the Siita Samhiti (I. 5. 4.) the expression "Tan- 
triki" is used as a form of worship distinguished from the Vedik 
form in ritualistic details. The verse, where the expression 
occurs, says that Para Shakti may be worshipped according to 
Vedik or Tantrik rites according to the Adhikara of the wor- 
shipper. A follower of the Agama calls himself an Agama- 
vadi, Kaula, Shakta, Shaiva and so forth. The Tantras are a 
recognised part of the scriptures of that which is generally called 
"Hinduism." The Suta Samhita (I. 1. 12) says the Puranas 
are of authority in the same way as the different Agamas 
(Kamika &c.) The commentator speaks of the Agamas as 
of equal authority with Shruti {Skrutisdmya) and he further 
says that for a full understanding of the Vedanta it is necessary 
to know among other scriptures the Agama. 

The Upanishads here published are accorded a place in 
this series because they contain doctrine and practice of and are 
referred to as authority by the Agamavadins. The Agamas 
are based on and areas Professor Grunwedal has pointed out 
in his "Der Weg Nach Sambhala" a continuation of the Vedas 
(Die Tantras sind eben die fortzetzung des Vedas). It is of 
interest to here note that, for reasons which have not yet been 
explained, the Tantra Shistra at any rate in its Sh-ikta form 
appears to have a special affiliation with the Atharva Veda. 
This however does not of course mean that Mantras and 


Yantras, Chakras or other elements of Up\san\ belong to this 
Veda alone as appears in this Volume from the Aruna Upa- 
nishad which belongs to the Krishna Yajurveda and Bah- 
vricha which belongs to the Rigveda. The authority of the 
Atharva Veda has been called in question. The argument is 
that as the Vedas are spoken of as Trayi Vidya. it is only the 
Rik, Yajus and Sima which are the original Vedas. The 
Atharva Veda is said to be of later date. Reference is made 
to the fact that it is replete with ritual and magic. The mean- 
ing however of the term Trayi Vidya is not understood. 
Trayi does not refer to the number of the Vedas but to the 
three Kandas, Karma, Upasana and J nana. [See among others 
Raghava Bhatta under Sharadatilaka I. i.] The "three-fold 
knowledge" has therefore nothing to do with the number of the 
Vedas. The word "Veda" signifies four, as when it is said of 
Brahma, that he is Vedavahu or Fourarmed. There are Brah- 
manas who are called Chaturvedis (proficient in the four Vedas 
just as there are others called Trivedis and Dvivedis. Not 
merely, the Atharva Veda but the others also contain ritual 
injunctions. The name Atharvan occurs in the other three 
Vedas. The four classes of priests are also well-known, 
namely, Adhvaryu, Hota, Udgata and Brahma the last of 
whom superintend the work of' the other Ritviks. It is said 
by some that the Atharva Veda is named after a great Brahma 
who belonged to the line of Angira. In the Mundaka Upa- 
nishad (I. i.) that Brahmi communicated to his first born son 
Atharva the Brahma-vidya which is the storehouse of all 
Vidya and Atharva communicated it to Angira. (See also as to 
this Veda, Suta Samhita I. i. 44 — 48 ; Markandeyapurana 
Ch. 102 ; Kurma Purana Ch. 49). From a Brahmanik stand- 
point it is an error to attribute to any Veda or Upanishad 
higher authority than the rest. The Suta Samhita (I. 1. 37, 
38) says "Veda is one and the goal thereof is one also, but it is 
divided into different Shfikhas or branches" and as such the 
"Vedas verily are endless" {Anantd vai veddh). Maxlhavacharya 
in his commentary to the above verses cites the Shruti text. 


"These verily are Vedas — the Vedas verily are endless," 
(Veddh rd ete anantd vai veddh). There is yet no contra- 
diction here. Though Shruti is endless it points to one Veda 
or Truth. Some only of the Upanishads of the Atharva Veda 
have been published. The Asiatic Society of Bengal has 
published 27 of the Atharvana Upanishads with commentary 
of Narayana, as also one page of the Garudopanishad. The 
Government of Bombay has published eleven Upanishads of 
the Atharva Veda including the Garudopanishad with (in the 
case of two of them) the commentaries of Narayana and 
Shangkarananda. Seven have the commentary of Narayana and 
the rest are without any commentary. The Anandashrama of 
Poona has published a volume contaning 32 Upanishads some 
of which belong to the Atharva Veda, a number of these have 
commentaries both by Narayana and Shangkarananda. The 
Theosophical society have published two volumes containing 
40 Upanishads the first of which was edited by Dr. Schrader 
and the second containing Yoga Upanishads by Pandit 
Mahadeva Shastri together with the commentaries of Brahma- 
chari. Some of these belong to the Atharva Veda. Sriyukta 
Mahesha Chandra Pala published some Upanishads of this Veda 
in Bengali character with Bengali translations. The Nirnaya- 
sagara Press of Bombay has published a volume containing the 
text only of 108 Upanishads which is erroneously believed by 
not a few to be a complete list. Preference (it may be here 
observed) has been given to some Upanishads because of the 
authority which they gained by reason of Shangkaracharya's 
commentaries on them. Doubtless this fact is proof of their 
authority but it does not necessarily follow that the Upanishads 
not so dealt with by him are without authority. He may 
neither have had the time nor considered it necessary to 
comment upon other Vedanta Shastras as did Appaya Dikshita, 
Narayana, Shangkarananda and others. 

In this volume are published the Kaulofanishad the 
Tripiirdmahopaw'shad, the Kdlikopanishad, the Advaita* 
bhdvanofanishad, the Tdrofauishad. the Arunopanishad, the 


Bahvrichopanishad, and the Bhdvanopanishad. The first four 
are here published for the first time. The Venkateshvara 
Press of Bombay has in the volume named Shfiktapramoda 
included Taropanishad which however is a different Upanishad 
from that which is here published under the same name though 
it is possible that what is there and here published may belong 
to one and the same Upanishad. The text of the Arunopa- 
nishad here published is a different work from that of the 
Aruneyopanishad published in the 108 Upanishads of the 
Nirnayasagara Press. Therefore these two texts here pub- 
lished under these two names are also published for the first 
time. The Bhavanopanishad has been previously printed by 
the Mysore Government but not the Pi ayo^a or practical 
application of its directions which is now published for the 
first time. To three Upanishads (Kaula, Bhfivana and Tripura- 
maha) are attached the commentary of the great Bhaskararaya 
an exponent of Kadimata. To the Bhavanopanisad and 
Tripuramahopanishad are also added short commentary by 
Appaya Dikshita, with the Arunopanishad is given the com- 
mentary by Lakshmidhara. The rest are published without 
commentary as it has not yet been found possible to secure any. 

The Kaulopanishad is as it were the seed of the Kaula 
doctrine and form of worship which is amplified in the 
Kularnava and other Tantras and Samhitas. There appear 
to have been differing forms of Kaula worship as evidenced by 
the commentary of Lakshmidhara on the Saundaryalahari 
who was himself a Kaula and a man of great learning but spoke 
with severe condemnation of some of the practices of what 
he calls the Uttara or Northern K aulas. Bhaskararaya, a man 
of considerable breadth of view and tolerance, condemns any 
depreciation of the faiths and rites of others. 

Commenting on the Riks of the Kaulopanishad which 
say : — "Even weak argument may be valid" (Anydyo nydyah) 
and "Condemn not others" {Lakdn na nindyat), Bhaskara says 
that some times it so happens that an objector by reason of his 
own weakness is not able to state his case rightly. With regard 


to the injunction not to condemn others he says that different 
Darshanas are of authority for different people according to 
the path they pursue and their respective Adhikara. A man 
who is not an Adhikari for a particular Darshana should not 
be initiated therein. It is on this account, says Bh&skararaya, 
the Lord (Gita- III. 26) has said that men are not to weaken 
the faith of the ignorant in the efficacy of ritualistic observances. 
This Upanishad is an enquiry (Jtjiidsd=Judndya vichdrali) 
relating to Dharma or Vimarsha Shakti. Vimarsha 'Shakti is 
Dharma because she is inherent in the Brahman who is the 
possessor of Dharma (Dharmi). In this Upanishad the one- 
ness of Brahman with Vimarsha Shakti and with the universe 
is established, One of the Riks says Adharma, that is. the 
Nishkala Brahman is Dharma {Adharma eva dharmah). This 
is the same thing as saying that Shakti or Dharma is not 
separate from that in which she inheres (Adhara) which is here 
the Brahman. Towards the end of the Upanishad is to be 
found the injunction against the indiscriminate preach- 
ing of Kaula (Kula faith and doctrine). Kaulapratishthang na 
kurydt. This is because it is likely to be, as it often is in fact, 
misunderstood as by persons who say that the Doctrine teaches 
and sanctions among others things incest. (See introduction to 
the Karpuradi Stotra in this series). The Upanishad ends by 
saying ''Be the equal of all" — (Sarvasamo bhavet). "Such an 
one becomes liberated" — (Sa viukto bhavati). 

The Bahvrichopanishad which belongs admittedly to the 
Rig Veda is here printed with a commentary by Appaya 
Dikshita. This speaks of Sadividya besides Kadi and Hadi. 
Appaya in his commentary gives the first Kiita of each of the 
three Vidyas. 

The Tripuramahopanishad consists of 16 Riks. Bhas- 
karamya who quotes the eighth Rich in his commentary 
to the Nityashodashikarnava Tantra (Ch. I, vv. 118, 119) 
speaks of it as belonging to the Shaunakashakha of the 
Atharva Veda and according to the Triplicane text of 
the commentary on the Kamakal:\viKisa wherein the same 


Rik has been cited under verse 17, it belongs to the 
Sangkhyayana Shakha of the Rigveda and contains the 
Panchadashakshari Vidya. Bhaskara under verse 8 of the 
Varivasyarahasya speaks of it as belonging to the same 
Shruti. Rik 9 .gives the Vagbhava Kuta of the Pancha- 
dashikaramantra according to Hadimata. It may be noted 
here that both Bhaskararaya who belongs to the Hadimata 
and the Commentator on Kamakala vilasa an adherent of 
the Hadimata are agreed as to the authority aud signi- 
ficance of the Rik. In the first Rik the Binduchakra is 
spoken of as containing within itself the letters A, Ka, Tha, 
(the A- Ka-Tha triangle) in a subtle state (see A. Avalon's 
"Serpent Power"). In Rik 2 the first Chakra of one triangle 
and the second of eight triangles are spoken of. In this way 
in the first five Riks the Shrichakra of Tripurasundari is 
described. (See Introduction to Tantraraja and also Kama- 
kalavilasa. Ed : A. Avalon). Rik 6 says all the Devis 
spoken of elsewhere are but Tripura. Rik 7 says that by 
knoiving Her the Sadhaka enters this Light of Tripura. The 
fourteenth Rik speaks of the equality in greatness (Samafira- 
dhanatvani) of the Female (Stri, Shakti) and the Male (Puman, 
Shiva) phases in the Universe. Bhiskararaya in his commen- 
tary to this Rik cites the well-known verse from Agama which 
says that Shiva bereft of Kundalini is no better than a corpse 
(Shava). Rik 15 speaks of the fruit of Nirguna Dhyana 
and the way to perform it. Under this Rik Bhaskara, dis- 
cusses the arguments for and against the use of wine. 

The Bhavonopanishad belongs, as is stated in the body 
of the Upanishad, to the Kadimata with which The Tantra- 
raja (Vol. VIII. Tantrik Texts and Vol. XII and in the Press) 
fully deals. In Chapter XXXV of that Tantra commonly called 
the V.asanapatala it gives a summary which explains this Upani- 
shad. The first Rik of this Upanishad says that Shakti who 
is the cause of all {Sarva-kdrana-bhutd Shaktih) is the adored 
Guru {Shriguruh) as is also stated in the Tantraraja in Chap- 
ter I and also in the Vfisanapatala. In the Vamakeshvara 


Tantra (Nityashodashika Ch. VI) the same is affirmed. So 
the great poet Kalidasa in his Hymn to the Mother (Amba- 
stotra) speaks of Her as "the very self of ihe Guru of bound- 
less mercy." (Sdkshddapdrakarund gurumurtir evd). The second 
Rik says that "Her body consists of nine openings." (Tena 
navarandhrarvpo dchaJi). The Tantraraja explains this and 
says that the ninefold character (Navatvam) of Her body (i, e. 
the body of Vimarsha Shakti) manifests itself {Avabhdsate) in 
the nature of apertures (Randhrdtvcna). These nine aper- 
tures are the nine Gurus. The two organs of hearing and that 
of speech are the three gurus of the Divya class. The two 
organs of vision and that of oreneration constitute the Siddha 
class and the two organs of smell and that of excretion the 
Munava class. In Rik 3 it is said that the Shrichakra is 
made up of nine Chakras, and Rik 6 that the body is made up 
of nine Gurus. In this way the correspondence is shown 
between the human body and the Shrichakra. The 10th 
Rik says that to worship the Shrichakra is to realise the 
identity of Jnata, J nana and Jneya. The other Riks speak 
of the identity of the different parts of the human body with 
those of the Shrichakra and the Shaktis abiding therein. 
Rik 27 says "that ones Atm\ {Svdtmd) which is ever Bliss 
and Whole (Saddnandapiirna) is the Supreme Devat\ Lalita (or 
Tripura)" In Rik 30 it is said that the end or accomplishment 
(Sidd/ii) is in the realisation of this unity. Ananychittatvena 
cha Siddhih. Rik 31 says "Homa consists in the dissolution 
{Vildpanci) in the Atmaof all sense of duality as shown in /and 
Thou, Being and ^on-being, Injunction and Proh : .bii ion, and 
the like. {A ham tvam ast : . ndsti kartavyam akartavyam updsi- 
tavyam iti vikalpdndm dtmani vi/dpanatn homali). The sense 
of this, says Bhaskararaya, is that all sense of duality should 
be destroyed and the many Shaktis which are the causes 
of it should be thought of as if dissolved or absorbed into the 
Devata. Rik t>3 declares the oneness of the fifteen Nityas 
with the fifteen lunar days. 

The Prayoga shows how the Sadhaka should do the rituals 


with the Riks. The proper (Svddhydyaftardyaua) student of 
Vedas not merely understands the text but practises it in such 
a way that he becomes an embodiment of Veda which thus 
rules him in all his actions leading him ultimately to Liberation 
which is the final goal of all who belong to the Brahmanik 
Faith. Thus the first three Riks of the Bhavanopanishad are 
those already mentioned (i) Skri-Guruk sarva-kdranabkiUd 
Shaktih. (2) Tena navarandhrarupo dehah. (3) Navacliakra- 
rupam Shri-chakram. The Prayoga is as follows : Do 
Pranayama with the MCilamantra and do Rishinyasa and 
other two Nyasas prescribed. Then say " obeisance to 
Shrfeuru who is Sushumna and Vivekavritti bein«- an 
Angsha of Chit Shakti itself," and touch the Brahmarandhra. 
Then say :. "Obeisance to Shri-Prakashanandanatha who is 
the right ear and Payasvini (the Nadi of that name); 
Obeisance to Shri-Vimarshanandanatha who is the left 
ear and Shangkhini ; Obeisance to Shri-Anandanatha and 
Sarsvati. In this way obeisance is to be made to each 
of the other six Gurus of the Siddha and Manava classes, 
mentioning along with the name of each the name of the 
associated organ and Nadi and touching the organs named 
and last of all Vyapaka Nyasa should be done saying obeisance 
to the (Her) body which is the Shrichakra composed of nine 
Chakras. Bhaskararaya in the Prayoga has given the entire 
process of which the above is a sample. 

As regards the Arunopanishad it is said by some that the 
whole of the first Prapathaka of the Taittiriya Aranyaka is 
the Arunopanishad as it is devoted to Aruna and Aruna- 
ketu. The word Aruna means " She who is red.'' Redness 
( Lauhityam ) is Vimarsha. Red is the colour of Rajas 
Guna. The Tantraraja sa,ys : " Lauhityzng tadvimarshah 
sydt" and the Bhavanopanishad (Rik 29) says the same. I 
have here published only that portion of the 27th section of 
the first Prapathaka of the Taittiriya Aranyaka which is 
by all admitted to be the Arunopanishad. There is a com- 
mentary to the Taittiriya Aranyaka by S'lyanacharya and 



it, like the generality of his commentary, deals with the 
surface of things and does not go into the inner significance 
of the texts commented upon. I have given the lucid com- 
mentary of Lakshmidhara. The Arunopanishad belongs to 
the Krishna Yajurveda and not to the Atharva Veda. The 
Upanishad begins with the text : "We now discuss this (the 
Chakravidya) and the Bhuvanas.'" (See A. Avalon's "Garland 
of Letters") The speakers are a class of Rishis named Prish- 
nis — the name appears at the end of the Upanishad. Natana- 
nanda cites two of the Riks of this Upanishad in his com- 
mentary to the Kamakalavilasa under verse 35 of that book. 
These two Riks are : Marichayah svdyambfaivdh. Ye skart- 
rdni akalpayan. Sayana has made no attempt to state their 
inner sense. Lakshmidhara gives a full explanation and shows 
how on the authority of the Taittiriya Brahmana and having 
regard to the context the two Riks refer to the countless rays 
which emanate from Supreme Self or the Devi and are indica- 
tive of Time and the divisions thereof as seen in Creation. 

The short Upanishad called Advaitabhava is nothing but 
a string of affirmations of the identity of the self with all 
and has importance only as evidence of the adoption of 
Advaitabhava. Kalika and Tara Upanishads give the Mantras 
and Yantras of these Devis and their Avarana Devatas and 
prescribe Kaula Sadhana for the realization of the unity of the 
Sldhaka with his Ishta Devata whether Kali or Tftra according 
to the Sadhaka's Adhikara. 

At the end of the book (Appendix ^ ) is printed a text of 
the Kaulopanishad received from the VarendraJ Anusandhana 
Samiti of Rajshahi. 

Calcutta, -i 

[ Arthur Avalon, 

2 3- J'*'y, *9 22 - J 

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fails?*! i frrats^? i *h^*i i H^re* i f*TOtap| i Jmtswr i 

T ^$t W^t 5TT$ TSTTf tf*T3FT fa*?: II 

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trii: irmnw i ^Twtsfa^T i g^r: vWhnn i sfarfawm inir**f 

twig *t*i i *w *nw: I *ffJ ^N : i irt* * f^i^T^ i *T% S^r*: i 
<^*i i fa^T^i tr&*i[ faro: i * f?i%*i i f*ra%* fwn ift*: i 

fawraT *k»wwt ^rm^q^ i ufwj froi * srSn^ i i *I^t 
fwf i tori q?n*j sri^* 1 ^^ 1 ^ %fij^r: i *ronnfafaS*if?! i 

Tantras . Kaula 

Kaula and other